Module 6 Guided Lab Creating a Virtual Private Cloud

Module 6 – Guided Lab: Creating a Virtual Private Cloud

Lab overview and objectives

Traditional networking is difficult. It involves equipment, cabling, complex configurations, and specialist skills. Amazon Virtual Private Cloud (Amazon VPC) hides the complexity, and simplifies the deployment of secure private networks.

This lab shows you how to build your own virtual private cloud (VPC), deploy resources, and create private peering connections between VPCs.

After completing this lab, you should be able to:

  • Deploy a VPC
  • Create an internet gateway and attach it to the VPC
  • Create a public subnet
  • Create private subnet
  • Create an application server to test the VPC

At the end of this lab, your architecture will look like the following example:


This lab will require approximately 30 minutes to complete.

AWS service restrictions

In this lab environment, access to AWS services and service actions might be restricted to the ones that are needed to complete the lab instructions. You might encounter errors if you attempt to access other services or perform actions beyond the ones that are described in this lab.

Accessing the AWS Management Console

  1. At the top of these instructions, choose Start Lab to launch your lab.
    A Start Lab panel opens, and it displays the lab status.
    Tip: If you need more time to complete the lab, restart the timer for the environment by choosing the Start Lab button again.
  2. Wait until the Start Lab panel displays the message Lab status: ready, then close the panel by choosing the X.
  3. At the top of these instructions, choose AWS.
    This action opens the AWS Management Console in a new browser tab. The system automatically logs you in.
    Tip: If a new browser tab does not open, a banner or icon is usually at the top of your browser with the message that your browser is preventing the site from opening pop-up windows. Choose the banner or icon, and then choose Allow pop-ups.
  4. Arrange the AWS Management Console tab so that it displays alongside these instructions. Ideally, you will have both browser tabs open at the same time so that you can follow the lab steps more easily.
    Do not change the Region unless specifically instructed to do so.

Task 1: Creating a VPC

You will begin by using Amazon VPC to create a new virtual private cloud, or VPC.

A VPC is a virtual network that is dedicated to your Amazon Web Services (AWS) account. It is logically isolated from other virtual networks in the AWS Cloud. You can launch AWS resources, such as Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (Amazon EC2) instances, into the VPC. You can configure the VPC by modifying its IP address range, and create subnets. You can also configure route tables, network gateways, and security settings.

  1. In the AWS Management Console, on the Services menu, choose VPC.
    The VPC console provides a wizard that can automatically create several VPC architectures. However, in this lab, you will create the VPC components manually.
  2. In the left navigation pane, choose Your VPCs.
    A default VPC is provided so that you can launch resources as soon as you start using AWS. There is also a Shared VPC that you will use later in the lab. However, you will now create your own Lab VPC.
    The VPC will have a Classless Inter-Domain Routing (CIDR) range of, which includes all IP address that start with 10.0.x.x. It contains over 65,000 addresses. You will later divide the addresses into separate subnets.
  3. Choose Create VPC and configure these settings:
    • Name tag: Lab VPC
    • IPv4 CIDR block:
    • Choose Create and then choose Close
  4.  If these options do not appear, cancel your configuration. In the left navigation pane, make sure you that chose Your VPCs. Then, choose Create VPC again.
  5. Select Lab VPC, and make sure that it is the only VPC that you selected.
  6. In the lower half of the page, choose the Tags tab.
    Tags are useful for identifying resources. For example, you can use a tag to identify cost centers or different environments (such as development, test, or production).
  7. Choose Actions and select Edit DNS hostnames.
    This option assigns a friendly Domain Name System (DNS) name to EC2 instances in the VPC, such as:
  8. Select enable, choose Save and then choose Close
    Any EC2 instances that are launched into the VPC will now automatically receive a DNS hostname. You can also add a more meaningful DNS name (such as later by using Amazon Route 53.

Task 2: Creating subnets

A subnet is a subrange of IP addresses in the VPC. AWS resources can be launched into a specified subnet. Use a public subnet for resources that must be connected to the internet, and use a private subnet for resources that must remain isolated from the internet.

In this task, you will create a public subnet and a private subnet:

Creating a public subnet

The public subnet will be used for internet-facing resources.

  1. In the left navigation pane, choose Subnets.
  2. Choose Create subnet and configure these settings:
    • Name tag: Public Subnet
    • VPC: Lab VPC
    • Availability Zone: Select the first Availability Zone in the list (Do not choose No Preference)
    • IPv4 CIDR block:
    • Choose Create and then choose Close
  3.  The VPC has a CIDR block of, which includes all 10.0.x.x IP addresses. The subnet you just created has a CIDR block of, which includes all 10.0.0.x IP addresses. They might look similar, but the subnet is smaller than the VPC because of the /24 in the CIDR range.
    You will now configure the subnet to automatically assign a public IP address for all instances that are launched in it.
  4. Select Public Subnet.
  5. Choose Actions and select Modify auto-assign IP settings, then:
    • Select Auto-assign IPv4
    • Choose Save
  6. Though this subnet is named Public Subnet, it is not yet public. A public subnet must have an internet gateway, which you attach in the next task.

Creating a private subnet

The private subnet will be used for resources that must remain isolated from the internet.

  1. Use what you just learned to create another subnet with these settings:
    • Name tag: Private Subnet
    • VPC: Lab VPC
    • Availability Zone: Select the first Availability Zone in the list (Do not choose No Preference)
    • IPv4 CIDR block:
  2. The CIDR block of includes all IP addresses that start with 10.0.2.x and 10.0.3.x. This is twice as large as the public subnet because most resources should be kept private, unless they specifically must be accessible from the internet.
    Your VPC now has two subnets. However, the public subnet is totally isolated and cannot communicate with resources outside the VPC. You will next configure the public subnet to connect to the internet via an internet gateway.

Task 3: Creating an internet gateway

An internet gateway is a horizontally scaled, redundant, and highly available VPC component. It allows communication between the instances in a VPC and the internet. It imposes no availability risks or bandwidth constraints on network traffic.

An internet gateway serves two purposes:

  • To provide a target in route tables that connects to the internet
  • To perform network address translation (NAT) for instances that were assigned public IPv4 addresses

In this task, you will create an internet gateway so that internet traffic can access the public subnet.

  1. In the left navigation pane, choose Internet Gateways.
  2. Choose Create internet gateway and configure these settings:
    • Name tag: Lab IGW
    • Choose Create and then choose Close
  3. You can now attach the internet gateway to your Lab VPC.
  4. Select  Lab IGW, and make sure that it is the only gateway that you selected.
  5. Choose Actions then Attach to VPC, and configure these settings:
    • VPC: From the list, select Lab VPC
    • Choose Attach
  6. This action will attach the internet gateway to your Lab VPC. Though you created an internet gateway and attached it to your VPC, you must also configure the public subnet route table so it uses the internet gateway.

Task 4: Configuring route tables

A route table contains a set of rules, called routes, that are used to determine where network traffic is directed. Each subnet in a VPC must be associated with a route table because the table controls the routing for the subnet. A subnet can only be associated with one route table at a time, but you can associate multiple subnets with the same route table.

To use an internet gateway, a subnet’s route table must contain a route that directs internet-bound traffic to the internet gateway. If a subnet is associated with a route table that has a route to an internet gateway, it is known as a public subnet.

In this task, you will:

  • Create a public route table for internet-bound traffic
  • Add a route to the route table to direct internet-bound traffic to the internet gateway
  • Associate the public subnet with the new route table
  1. In the left navigation pane, choose Route Tables.
    Several route tables are displayed, but there is only one route table associated with Lab VPC. This route table routes traffic locally, so it is called a private route table.
  2. In the VPC ID column, select  the route table that shows Lab VPC (you can expand the column to see the names).
  3. In the Name column, choose  then enter the name Private Route Table and choose .
  4. In the lower half of the page, choose the Routes tab.
    There is only one route. It shows that all traffic that is destined for (which is the range of the Lab VPC) will be routed locally. This route allows all subnets in a VPC to communicate with each other.
    You will now create a new public route table to send public traffic to the internet gateway.
  5. Choose Create route table and configure these settings:
    • Name tag: Public Route Table
    • VPC: Lab VPC
    • Choose Create and then choose Close
  6. Select  Public Route Table, and make sure that it is the only route table that you selected.
  7. In the Routes tab, choose Edit routes
    You will now add a route to direct internet-bound traffic ( to the internet gateway.
  8. Choose Add route then configure these settings:
    • Destination:
    • Target: Select Internet Gateway and then, from the list, select Lab IGW
    • Choose Save routes and then choose Close
  9. The last step is to associate this new route table with the public subnet.
  10. Choose the Subnet Associations tab.
  11. Choose Edit subnet associations
  12. Select  the row with Public Subnet.
  13. Choose Save
    The public subnet is now public because it has a route table entry that sends traffic to the internet via the internet gateway.
    To summarize, you can create a public subnet by following these steps:
    • Create an internet gateway
    • Create a route table
    • Add a route to the route table that directs traffic to the internet gateway
    • Associate the route table with a subnet, which thus becomes a public subnet

Task 5: Creating a security group for the application server

A security group acts as a virtual firewall for instances to control inbound and outbound traffic. Security groups operate at the level of the elastic network interface for the instance. Security groups do not operate at the subnet level. Thus, each instance can have its own firewall that controls traffic. If you do not specify a particular security group at launch time, the instance is automatically assigned to the default security group for the VPC.

In this task, you will create a security group that allows users to access your application server via HTTP.

  1. In the left navigation pane, choose Security Groups.
  2. Choose Create security group and configure these settings:
    • Security group name: App-SG
    • Description: Allow HTTP traffic
    • VPC: Lab VPC
    • Choose Create and then choose Close
  3. Select App-SG.
  4. Choose the Inbound Rules tab.
    The settings for Inbound Rules determine what traffic is permitted to reach the instance. You will configure it to permit HTTP (port 80) traffic that comes from anywhere on the internet (
  5. Choose Edit rules
  6. Choose Add Rule and then configure these settings:
    • Type: HTTP
    • Source: Anywhere
    • Description: Allow web access
    • Choose Save rules and then choose Close
  7. You use this App-SG in the next task.

Task 6: Launching an application server in the public subnet

To test that your VPC is correctly configured, you will now launch an EC2 instance into the public subnet. You will also confirm that you can access the EC2 instance from the internet.

  1. On the Services menu, choose EC2.
  2. Choose Launch Instance and select Launch Instance from the drop down list. Configure these options:
    • Step 1 (Choose AMI):
      • AMI: Amazon Linux 2
    • Step 2 (Choose Instance Type):
      • Instance Type: t2.micro
    • Step 3 (Configure Instance Details):
      • Network: Lab VPC
      • Subnet: Public Subnet
      • IAM role: Inventory-App-Role
      • User data (Under  Advanced Details):
    • #!/bin/bash
      # Install Apache Web Server and PHP
      yum install -y httpd mysql
      amazon-linux-extras install -y php7.2
      # Download Lab files
      unzip -d /var/www/html/
      # Download and install the AWS SDK for PHP
      unzip aws -d /var/www/html
      # Turn on web server
      chkconfig httpd on
      service httpd start
    • Step 4 (Add Storage):
      • Use default settings (no changes)
    • Step 5 (Add Tags):
      • Choose Add Tag
      • Key: Name
      • Value: App Server
    • Step 6 (Configure Security Group):
      • Select an existing security group: App-SG
    •  You will receive this warning: You will not be able to connect to the instance. This warning is acceptable because you will not be connecting to the instance. All configuration is done via the user data script.
      • Click Continue.
    • Step 7 (Review):
      • Launch
  3. In the Select an existing key pair or create a new key pair window:
    • Select Proceed without a key pair.
    • Select  I acknowledge that….
    • Choose Launch Instances
  4. A status page notifies you that your instances are launching.
  5. Choose View Instances
  6. Wait for the application server to fully launch. It should display the following status:
    • Instance State:  running
  7.  You can choose to refresh  occasionally to update the display.
  8. Select  App Server.
  9. Copy the IPv4 Public IP address from the Description tab.
  10. Open a new web browser tab with that IP address.
    If you configured the VPC correctly, the Inventory application and this message should appear: Please configure settings to connect to database. You have not configured any database settings yet, but the appearance of the Inventory application demonstrates that the public subnet was correctly configured.
    If the Inventory application does not appear, wait 60 seconds and refresh  the page to try again. It can take a couple of minutes for the EC2 instance to boot and run the script that installs software.

Submitting your work

  1. At the top of these instructions, choose Submit to record your progress and when prompted, choose Yes.
  2. If the results don’t display after a couple of minutes, return to the top of these instructions and choose Grades
    Tip: You can submit your work multiple times. After you change your work, choose Submit again. Your last submission is what will be recorded for this lab.
  3. To find detailed feedback on your work, choose Details followed by  View Submission Report.

Lab complete 

 Congratulations! You have completed the lab.

  1. Choose End Lab at the top of this page, and then select Yes to confirm that you want to end the lab.
    A panel indicates that DELETE has been initiated… You may close this message box now.

Select the X in the top right corner to close the panel.

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